Deoni cow is one of the most important dual-purpose breeds found in the most drought-prone region of India. It is claimed that it has been developed from a strain descended from the mixture of Gir and Dangi and local cattle. Mostly found in the Marathwada region of Maharashtra state and adjoining parts of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh states.
They also show a great similarity in general conformation and ruggedness to the Dangi cattle which is not far from the Deoni cattle breeding area. A contribution from the Gir type of cattle is quite evident in the formation of the head and ears, and also of the horns to a certain extent.
Deoni breed is a descended from the mixture of Gir and Dangi and local cattle.
The breeding tract of the breed includes the Bidar district of Karnataka and Parbhani, Nanded, Osmanabad, and Latur districts of Maharashtra. Deoni is also called as Dongari (which means “of the hills”).
The Calf and adult mortality were found to be negligible and the breed was found to be hardy and well adapted to tropical drought-prone areas.
Physical characteristics of the Deoni cow
- The Deoni is an above medium-sized animal that resembles the Gir in physical structure.
- The body is massive and upstanding with considerable depth and gives an appearance of strength.
- Body-color is usually spotted black and white.
- This breed has three strains viz. Balankya (complete white), Wannera (complete white with partial blackface) and Waghyd or Shevera (black and white spotted).
- Small-sized horns emerge from the side of the poll behind and above the eyes in an outward and upward direction.
- The tips of the horn are blunt.
- Eyes are prominent, bright and alert with black eyebrows.
- The skin is loose and of medium thickness, the hair is soft and short.
- The breed is characterized by drooping ears and a prominent & slightly bulging forehead.
- The udder is moderately developed.
- Teats are black, cylindrical with rounded tips, and are squarely placed.
- The hooves are well-made and shapely and of black color.
Production characteristics of the Deoni cattle
Deoni cattle are used for heavy work and transport. It can sustain any drought. It also yields good milk. Most of the characteristics are described below:
1. Milk yield
- The breed produces scanty milk with an average yield of 868 kg per lactation (ranging between 638 to 1229 kg per lactation).
- The lactation period is 300 days.
- Deoni cow milk yield per day is 4 liters to 7 liters
- The fat percentage in the milk is 4.3 % on average.
2. Parturition (Action of giving birth to young)
- Deoni cow showed their first estrus at the average age of 36 months.
- The average age at first Parturition(first calving) is 45 months.
- Parturition Interval(Inter calving period) is 14 months.
- The selected bulls started breeding at the age of 30 months.
- Deoni bullocks are preferred for heavy work.
- Deoni bullocks reach the maximum potential at around 5 to 6 year of age and maintain it effectively up to 12 years of age.
Advantages of the Deoni cow
- This breed is a Dual purpose breed it means animals have characteristic intermediate between milch and Draught breeds.
- The cows of this breed give average 1500kg milk in 300 days of lactation.
- Some cows of this breed give up to 1800 kg milk in 300 days of lactation. on good feeding and management practices
- Calving ease and minimum dystocias(Obstructed labor), with more birth weight of the calf.
- Bulls of this breed are looks very beautiful white in color used for breeding purposes only.
- Bullocks of this breed are very strong powerful so good for farm cultivation,
- This breed is higher disease resisting power especially tick-borne diseases
- These breeds have good heat tolerance power(Marked tolerance to direct sunlight and radiation.)
- The bullocks of this breed are well suited for heavy work due to the black and hard hooves.
- These are some of the good characters of this breed so farmers rear this Deoni breed.
Brief characteristic of the Deoni cow
|Other Name||Surti, Dongarpati, Dongri, Deccani, Wannera, Waghyd, Balankya and Shevera|
|Country/Place of Origin||India|
|Breed Purpose||Farm work and milk(dairy)|
|Breed Size||Above Medium|
|Weight Male||590 kg|
|Milk Yield||4 to 7 liters|
|Skin color||white and black spots|
|Climate Tolerance||Any climate|
Management of Deoni cattle
- Cattle are housed mostly in open houses. Most of the Deoni cows are given individual care.
- Calves are not weaned.
- Males are nursed better and longer as compared to female calves.
- Deoni cattle are taken to pastures during day time and generally maintained on grazing only.
- Bullocks, bull calves and milking females are given some crop residues and concentrate.