Commercial Rose farming business is one of the most profitable among floriculture trade. Rose is the most popular flower in the cut-flower trade both in the domestic and international markets. Cut-flowers with stem rank first in international trade.
In India, rose is a very popular flower commercially both as loose flower and with the stem. Production of cut-flowers is generally done in protected conditions while loose flowers are grown in open field conditions.
The cultivation of roses is a very old practice. Initially, roses were grown mainly for religious purposes and in societal functions. Gradually, the popularity increased followed by demand This necessitated its cultivation commercially for the production of loose flowers mainly. With changes in lifestyle and societal structure, the use of roses with stem came into existence, in the form of bouquets and arrangements in vases.
Today, roses are grown commericaly in open fields for the production of loose flowers and cut-flowers with stem in protected conditions. There is a huge domestic market as well as export potential.
Rose belongs to the family Rosaceae and contains about 120 species and there are more than 30,000 varieties producting roses differing in form , shape, size, color, fragrance and flowering habit. The different varieties falling under various classes are Hybrid perpetuals, Tea Roses, Hybrid Teas, Polyanthes, Floribundas, Grandiflora, Damask Roses, Miniatures.
Roses can be propagated by seeds, cuttins, layering and budding but for commerical purposes, they are mostly propagated by budding because through budding true-to-parent type can be achieved.
Budding: Budding is the most suitable and commonly used method for propagation of roses. The technique is simple but requires proper practice, precaution and care. The first step is selection of root stock and variety to be bubbed.
Production of Loose Flowers
Site: Select open sunny place away from the buildings and trees.
Soil: Well drained clay loam soil is ideal.
Preparation of Beds: Beds are prepared thoroughly by ploughing/digging at least 40 to 45 days before planting and left for sun drying. These are normally prepared during April-May. Rectangular beds separated by band are prepated in convenient size depending up on the number of plants to be accommodated and its type. Approximately 2 kg cow dung manure, 200 g bone meal per plant is added to the top soil before planting. Initially, no chemical fertilizer should be applied to the newly planted roses up to one month.
Planting: Roses are planted during September/October but the planting time may vary at other places, depending upon the climatic conditions. Before planting, about 25 to 30 cm soil from each pit is removed and the plant along with earthball is placed in such a way that the joint of stock-scion remains just above the soil level. Planting distance(between plants and rows) dependis upon the variety. Conventional planting density is 60×60 cm between rows and plants. However, for commercial purpose. high planting densities i.e., 60×30 cm; 30x 30cm, are recommended.
Pruning: Pruning of roses is done during third week of October in the plains of northern India. The pruning time may be adjusted depending upon the local climatic condition. The main purpose of pruning is to remove old, dry and diseased woods and for encouraging new healthy growth for promoting profuse flowering. Cut ends are treated with copper fungicides for preventing die-back disease.
De-suckering: Suckers of wild stock plant appear below the budded portion. The growth of the sucker is very vigorous. It should be removed immediately otherwise the entire budded plant is ruined.
Manuring: Apply 10 kg of well rotten cow dung manure per plant besides a mixture of 100 g of neem cake, 20 g of urea, 100 g of bone meal, 50 g of superphosphate and 30 g of muriate of potash followed by irrigation.
Irrigation: Regular irrigation to be fiven at weekly interval depending up on the climate and season.
Weeding: Keep the beds free of weeds and unwanted vegetation.
Pests and Diseases
In order to keep the plants healthy and free from diseases, regular spraying (15 days interval) of fungicides (Dithane M 45 @ 20 g/liter) and insecticides (Rogor @ 1.0 ml/liter of water) should be done. The major diseases and pests which hamper crop growth are given below.
- Diseases: Black spot, Powdery Mildew, Downy Mildew, Rose Mosaic viruses (RMV), Die-back.
- Pests: Aphids, White-ants, Chafer Beetles, Jassids, Mites, Red Scales.
Harvesting and Yield
Harvesting: Well bloomed flowers are plucked manually early in the morning or late afternoon and kept in the basket properly wrapped with hessian cloth for distant market.
Yield: Loose flowers 25 to 30 quintal/hectare/year.
It is required not only for cooler regionsbut also for any climatic condition to grow a better crop. Roses for international market are mostly cultivated under polyhouses. Polyhouses are framed structures covered with transparent or translucent material and large enough to grow crops under partial or fully controlled enviroment conditions to get maximum productivity and quality bloom. Advantages of growing roses under polyhouse are high productivity per unit area, roses can be grown in any season of the year depending upon the demand and market, blooms are of high quality and free from blemishes.
The micro-climatic environment in the polyhouse is more suitable for crop development than the outside enviroment. The quality and quantity of production under polyhouse is better as it protects the crop damange caused by birds, rodents, pests, diseases, extreme temperature, heavy rain, hailstorms, high wind, etc. Plants are mostly grown in growing media and therefore soil-borne diseases are avoided. Polyhouse cultivation takes care of resources like effective water management, optimum use of pesticides and fertilizers, year round growing of crops,etc.
Cost economics for loose flowers
- Expenditure: Rs. 1.0 lakh/ha/year (Propagation, Land preparation, Manures, and Fertilizers, Transplanting, Irrigation, weeding, and Hoeing, Pruning and Harvesting)
- Production per year: 25 to 30 q/ha loose flowers
- Value of flowers: Rs. 2.5 lakh/ha/year
- Net profit: Rs. 1.5 lakh/ha/year
Projected Economics for Cut-flowers (In 3 years)
Area : 500 sq.m
Total plants planted : 4000 nos. (8 plants/m2)
Total cost : Rs. 6.04 lakh (over 3 years)
Production of cut-flowers : 1.92 lakh flowers
Sale value of flowers : Rs. 9.60 lakh (Rs. 5 per flower)
Net profit: Rs. 3.2 lakh
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Hello, I am Siddartha Reddy . A fulltime farmer and blogger who love to share all his farming experiences. Also, a strong supporter of sustainable farming practices. Thanks for visiting our site, let’s make this world a better place to live. Say No to Chemicals and plastics.