Tuberose is an important tropical ornamental bulbous plant. It belongs to the family Amaryllidaceae and is native of Mexico. Tuberose is frown commercially for the production of cut as well as loose flower. Single and double varieties are in cultivation for the procution of flowers. Due to long vase life and fragnance of the flowers, Tuberose is in high demad in floricultural trade in India.
Comemrcial cultivation of Tuberose in India is very old. Loose flowers are well as cut-spikes are used traditionally for various purposes. Being sub-tropical in nature, the cultivation is confined to Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. The flowers are mainly available during warm seasons. Essential oil extracted from the flowers has commercial value and traded both in domestic and international market.
The genius has only one species i.e Polianthes tuberosa L. There are four types of Tuberoses named on the basis of the number of rows of petals they bear.
Single: Arka Nirantara, Calcutta Single, Kahikuchi Single, Kalyani Single, Phule Rajani, Pune Single, Rajat Rekha, Shringar, Prajwal and Single Mexican.
Semi-double: Calcutta Double, Hyderabad Double, Kalyani Double, Suvasini, Swarna Rekha, Vaibhav
Double: Suvasini and Vaibhav
Variegated: Rajat Rekha, Swarna Rekha.
Climate: In India, commercial cultivation of tuberose is confined to warm humid areas with average temperature ranging from 20 to 30 deg C.
Soil: Fertile, loamy and sandy soils having a pH in the range of 6.5 to 7.5 with good aeration and drainage are ideal for tuberose cultivation.
Selection of Site: For attaining good vegetative growth and maximum yield of flowers, a site should be chosen, where the plants will get plenty of sun throughout their growing period.
Field Preparation: The land should be ploughed 2 to 3 times up to a depth of 30 to 45 cm to obtain a good tilth.
Season of Planting: Tuberoses are generally planted in Marth to April in the plains and April to May in the hills. The bulbs can also be planted during July to August.
Spacing: For economic returns, bulbs are planted at an optimum spacing of 30 x 20 cm or 20 x 20 cm between rows and plants.
Depth of Planting: The depth of planting varies from 3 to 7 cm depending upon the diameter of the bulb and the soil type.
Seed/Bulb Treatment: The bulbs are thoroughly cleaned and treated with Bavistin(0.2%) for 30 minutes.
Nutrients: Aprat from FYM (20 tonnes/ha). a fertilizer dose fo 100 kg N, 50 kg P2O5 and 70 kg K2O per hectare is recommended for better flower production.
Irrigation: One irrigation is given just after planting by flooding. Subsequent irrigation to the crop is given depending upon the previaling weather and soil moisture conditions.
Intercultural Operations: Manual weeding should be done at monthly intervals to keep the beds free of weeds.
Pests and Diseases
Aphids: They can be controlled by a 0.1 % spray of Malathion(1 ml/liter) or Rogor at an interval of 15 days.
Thrips: Thrips are controlled by the spray of Rogor or Metasystox @ 1.75 to 2.0 ml/liter.
Stem Rot: The disease can be controlled by dranching the soil around the stem with Brassicol @ 1% or Zineb (20 %) at the rate of 30 kg per hectare.
Flower Bud Rot: The disease can be controlled by the spray of Streptomycin (0.01 %)
Leaf Bligh or Botryis Blight: Spraying the plants with Carbendazim @ 2 g/liter of water effectively controls the disease.
Harvesting and Management
Flowering of Tuberose starts 80 to 100 days after planting. The main season of flowering is July to October till the onset of winter. Flwoer spikes at semi open condition are harvested either in the morning or evening. Cut-spikes are wrapped in gunny bags/card board sheets and finally packed in basket or card board boxes for marketing purpose.
Post Harvest Management
Vase Life: Immediately after harvest, the lower portion of the cut spikes should be immersed in water for prolonging the case life of spikes.
Grading and Handling: The flower spikes for cut flower purposes are graded according to the following quality attributes like Spike length, Length of rachis, Number of flowers per spike, Weight of spikes and quality of indivisual florets.
Storage: The fresh flowers can be stored at 10 deg C for 5 days.
Yield: Flowers are ready for harvest after 80 to 100 days of planting. One hectare of Tuberose plantation yields 4 to 5 lakhs of spikes per year for cut flower purposes. In the case of single varieties, 14 to 15 tonnes/ha of loose flowers may be harvested. In addition, 20 to 25 tonnes/ha of bulbs and bulblets may be harvested at the end of the third year.
Cost Economics (per acre)
Layout details : 160 beds (10.0 x 1.5 m)
Total corms planted : 40,000 nos (250 bulbs per bed: 30 x 20 cm apart)
Total expenditure : Rs. 1,80,000
|Spikes (40,000 spikes)||Rs. 2.0/spike 80,000|
|Bulbs 1,50,000 bulbs||Rs. 1.00 each 1,50,000|
|Gross income 2,30,000|
|Total expenditure 1,80,000|
|Net profit 50,000.00|
Approx. range of profit Rs. 50,000 to 52,000